Table 2.

Instances of use of evidence to support claims across all students reports in total, as a percentage of total instances, and percentages of students who used evidence in each way and at each epistemic level

Epistemic LevelUse of EvidenceTotal InstancesInstances, %Students Who Used Evidence in Each Way, %Students Who Used Evidence at Each Epistemic Level, %
NegativeLack of evidence2834343
FoundationReferring to literature indirectly3112990100
Referring to own results/study15915100
Referring to literature directly1371381
IntermediateUse of integration183179898
Referring to findings of literature1071074
Identifying limitations of own study89874
AdvancedHighlighting limitations of literature2624076
Identifying gaps in literature45462
Total1,085100

n = 42 reports total.