Table 3.

Instances of use of evidence to support claims across all journal articles in total, as a percentage of total instances, and percentage of articles which used evidence in each way and at each epistemic level

Epistemic LevelUse of EvidenceTotal InstancesInstances, %Articles That Used Evidence in Each Way, %Articles That Used Evidence at Each Epistemic Level, %
NegativeLack of evidence425757
FoundationReferring to literature indirectly4417100100
Referring to own results/study9337100
Referring to literature directly351471
IntermediateUse of integration251086100
Referring to findings of literature21886
Identifying limitations of own study146100
AdvancedHighlighting limitations of literature7357100
Identifying gaps in literature11471

n = 7 journal articles.