Topics discussed in the lecture sessions in experiments 1 and 2
Composition of the intracellular and extracellular environments.
Diffusion of substances through permeable and semipermeable membranes.
Permeability of the plasma membrane and its relationship to ion leak channels.
Differences in electrical charge generated by a selectively permeable membrane.
Equilibrium potential of an ion and the Nernst equation.
Difference in electrical charges through the plasma membrane.
Sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) leak channels present in the plasma membrane.
Goodman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation.
Function of the Na+-K+-ATPase pump.
Dynamics of voltage-gated ion channels.
State of leak channels during phases of the action potential.
Difference between graded potentials and action potentials.
Graph of the action potential over time.
State of ion channels during different phases of the action potential.
Relative and absolute refractory periods.
Influence of changes in the ion concentrations in the extracellular environment on triggering action potentials.
Action potential mechanisms and drug development.